Record

Water level

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probably made in Paris

Postcard of Water level.
000-190-002-061-C
© National Museums Scotland

Water level

This is a detail of a water level made in 1774, probably by Louis-Pierre-Florimond Lennel, a scientific instrument maker based in Paris.

The detail shows the inscription on the centre of the level. It reads 'Lennel a la Sphere a Paris 1774'.

The water level may well have been used in the French National Survey, as its leather case carries the official fleur-de-lys stamp. This survey took place throughout the 18th century, but never received sufficient state backing: triangulation work began in 1747, with funding withdrawn in 1756. By 1784 only Brittany was unsurveyed, and this was not completed until well after the French Revolution, in 1818.


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Online ID: 000-190-002-061-C
Image Rights Holder: National Museums Scotland
Project: 0098: National Museums Scotland
Project description | View all records in project
Ref: National Museums Scotland  T.1973.72
Date: 1774
Material: Leather case
Dimensions:
What: Water level / case
Subject: 5. CARTOGRAPHY, Surveying (Departmental Classification)
Who: E. Lennel, Paris (Maker)
Where: France, Paris
Event:
Description: Water level, in a leather case, signed by E. Lennel of Paris, 1774
References:
  • Bennett, J.A. The Divided Circle: A history of instruments for astronomy, navigation and surveying. Oxford: 1987, p 87 
  • For Lennel, see Daumas, M. Scientific Instruments of the 17th and 18th Centuries and their Makers. London: 1972, pp 262 & 332, and Augarde, Jean-Dominique, 'La fabrication des instruments scientifiques du XVIIIe siecle et la corporation des fondeurs' in B 
  • Wynter, H. & Turner, Anthony, Scientific Instruments. London: 1973, p 158 
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