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Made in Glasgow

Postcard of Clinometer.
© National Museums Scotland


A clinometer is a surveying instrument used for measuring the angle of inclination. This brass example, also known as a drainage level, was made around 1855 by Gardner & Co., scientific instrument makers based in Glasgow.

The clinometer (pictured here in its wooden case) has a telescopic sight, bubble level and silvered arc. Engraved on the arc is 'GARDNER & CO/ 21 BUCHANAN ST/ GLASGOW/ REGISTERED NO 2602 DEC 28TH 1850'.

T.R. Gardner registered the design of this special level - used when installing drainage pipes - in December 1850. This was two years before obtaining the Royal Warrant alluded to on the trade card on the inside box lid.

Record details

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Online ID: 000-100-102-758-C
Image Rights Holder: National Museums Scotland
Project: 0098: National Museums Scotland
Project description | View all records in project
Ref: National Museums Scotland  T.1980.146
Date: Around 1855
c. 1855
Material: Brass. Inscription: GARDNER & Co. / 21 BUCHANAN St. / GLASGOW. / REGISTERD / No. 2602 DEC 28th.. 1850. ; 85
Dimensions: 344 mm L
What: Clinometer / drainage level / case
Who: Arthur Frank Collection of Scottish Scientific Instruments
Gardner and Co., Glasgow (Maker)
Where: Scotland, Lanarkshire, Glasgow
Description: 13 1/2" drainage level or clinometer, numbered 85, in brass with telescopic sight, registered design of 1850, signed by Gardner and Co. of Glasgow, c. 1855
  • Clarke, T.N., Morrison-Low, A.D. & Simpson, A.D.C. Brass & glass scientific instrument making workshops in Scotland as illustrated by instruments from the Arthur Frank Collection at the Royal Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS, 1989. pp 166,170,172,174 
  • T.N. Clarke, A.D. Morrison-Low and A.D.C. Simpson (1989): "Brass and Glass 
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